Exploring the World Through Animation

The freedom of the animated form continuously provides a way for filmmakers from around the world to express their creativity. These films can be a great way into World Cinema and also a nice change from live action storytelling. The list below is condensed but covers a large area and will provide some alternatives to more well-known forms of animation such as Pixar and Studio Ghibli. They also act as examples of how the removal of live action or ‘reality’ gives directors the freedom to present abstract and unusual ideas. This freedom is clearly not tied to a specific national cinema as experiments with animation can be seen across countries.

United Kingdom – Granpa (1989)


Although Dianne Jackson is most commonly associated with festive classic The Snowman, an annual tradition for many, she went on to make an equally tender and tragic book adaptation that was lost in the transition from VHS to DVD (I currently own a rather poor quality version copied from my original video tape). Luckily thanks to the wonders of the internet it can now be found on YouTube. Granpa is a visual tale of a girl’s relationship with her grandfather. The perspective is that of a child and thus it is a difficult film to describe but there is something unique about the way it captures childhood. Scenes merge into each other, complemented by a Jackson’s use of song, creating a sense of fantasy but also memory – cuddly toys sing in unison, a bedtime story comes to life, and even a day at the beach has plenty of unexpected surprises. It does have an added layer of nostalgia if watched at a young age but it is so wonderfully universal in its content and the hand-drawn animation feels very refreshing in the Pixar-dominated world of today. It runs at just under half an hour and will be very appealing to those familiar with The Snowman.

Spain – Wrinkles (2011)


This Spanish animation appears to be similar to Granpa at first glance but is actually a very different film. Wrinkles effectively conveys the plodding, zimmer-frame-pace, world of its elderly protagonists unlike Granpa which is from the more dynamic perspective of a child. The film’s simplistic narrative and general humility represent the disillusionment of its protagonist as it focuses on an elderly man suffering from Alzheimer’s and his experiences moving into a care home. Wrinkles is an underwhelming adventure but deliberately so and funny because of it. The day to day problems of the elderly may seem trivial in reality but within the diegesis they are surprisingly engaging. The inability of a group of pensioners to pass a ball around a circle, and the men’s fascination with their young carer’s ‘assets’ become simple but effective comedic devices. This is effectively integrated with a more serious look at the issues of ageing and coming to terms with a loss of control of oneself. Animation also takes the film above and beyond the limits of live action. Quite often with films of this sort, part of the interest lies in seeing how something very real is represented. With real actors it would perhaps seem too mundane but animation helps tone down some of the serious issues and make them more palatable.

France – Belleville Rendez-vous (2003)

Belleville Rendezvous

In a similar way to Wrinkles, Belleville Rendez-vous (aka The Triplets of Belleville) shows how animation can be used to take a story beyond the limits of live action. This is achieved through the artistic flare of Sylvain Chomet who moulds his stereotypes into the starkest of caricatures. From lanky, forlorn cyclists to box-shaped mafia men and whippet-like waitors, his stereotypes are absurdly over the top but really amusing to watch.  It is a visual masterpiece, particularly as dialogue is almost non-existent and the title song brings the story to life from the first scene. The narrative is simplistic, focusing on a kidnapping at the Tour de France, but its lack of complexity allows the viewer to focus on the richness of the mise-en-scene and representations of reality. Along with this it is also a fine example of Chomet’s quirky, very ‘French’, and often dark, humour.

USA – Waking Life (2001)

Waking Life

Just as Studio Ghibli has consistently stolen the limelight in Japan, Disney has dominated the American market for decades. Despite these films being classics in their own right, it can be refreshing to discover new forms of American animation. Richard Linklater’s fascinating studies of human interaction, Slacker and Before Sunrise, paved the way for his first animated feature Waking Life. Animation became the perfect format for his existential studies as abstract ideas can be conveyed fully through the limitlessness of the animated form. The film tackles tricky philosophical concepts, with a particular focus on lucid dreaming, and animation allows Linklater to visually represent his themes of transcendence. In a discussion about life two men pause to share a ‘holy moment’ and Linklater seamlessly blends their transcendent state into an image of the two figures as clouds. This transition perfectly conveys a concept which is very difficult to explain through language. There is a shape-shifting quality to the aesthetic as scenery floats, characters fragment, and settings blend into one another. The animation is not only a real cinematic achievement, but it also helps in understanding some quite challenging themes.

Israel – Waltz With Bashir (2008)

Waltz with Bashir

Following in the footsteps of Linklater, Ari Folman uses animation as a way of presenting many abstract, and somewhat unspeakable, ideas. Waltz With Bashir is a documentary that attempts to convey the horror of the Lebanon War. Its beautiful imagery made it a festival favourite but its mixture of animation, documentary, and war film conventions makes it difficult to categorise and thus it is frequently overlooked as one of the best in any of those genres. One element that stands out in particular is the way Folman inserts real photographs from the War at the very end of the film. The sudden change from animation to real life makes the images all the more jarring and disturbing, a very effective way of conveying the horrors of war. He also uses animation to blur the line between dreams and reality as his own experiences from Lebanon seamlessly merge into his post-war nightmares. Although many images stand out, the opening scene is particularly memorable as Folman shows his recurring nightmare of a group of rabid dogs chasing people down a street, a haunting but striking image of his trauma.

Japan – Angel’s Egg (1985)

Angel's Egg

Hayao Miyazaki is perhaps the most well-known anime creator worldwide but, because of this, many people confine themselves to his work alone. His films are great examples of Japanese animation but don’t showcase the full range of material the country has to offer. Aside from the more complex films, such as Akira and Ghost in the Shell, there are some even less well known masterpieces rarely mentioned by anyone other than anime experts. Angel’s Egg is not for everyone, where it is lacking in narrative it makes up for in surreal visuals and a bizarre form. Many elements are left unexplained but the focus is essentially on the interaction between a young girl and a soldier in a post-apocalyptic world. The girl guards a mysterious egg and moves from place to place collecting glass objects but her encounters with the soldier make her question the nightmarish after-world they inhabit. For those already attracted to non-narrative cinema and surrealism, this film will be of particular interest. It might also be refreshing for those who have confined themselves so far to more well-known anime. It is available on YouTube.

Czech Republic – Conspirators of Pleasure (1996)

Conspirators of Pleasure

Jan Švankmajer’s Conspirators of Pleasure is not an animation in the traditional sense. It is mostly live action, in the same way as his most famous film Alice, but his use of stop-motion is integral to the overall effect of his work. This is another animated film that is particularly appealing to fans of surrealism as it is really a jumble of quirky moments providing more visual than narrative pleasure. The effort Švankmajer puts into his work is clear to see as stop-motion is a particularly time-consuming process. As in Belleville Rendez-vous, the lack of dialogue directs the viewer’s attention towards the details of the visuals. The lack of dialogue also creates a universal feel. The film is a bizarre comedy focusing on the fetishes of six characters and Švankmajer incorporates the animation into each individual’s indulgence in their fetish. One particularly standout moment is when a woman places hundreds of rolled up pieces of bread in her nose and ears and these moments combining live action and animation create a truly original effect.

Austria – Fast Film (2003)

Fast Film

Despite running for a little over ten minutes, Fast Film displays the great amount of effort animators put into their work. Virgil Widrich literally pieces together snippets of dozens of famous films to create an extended chase sequence. The references to cinema are particularly satisfying for any film buff and the chase structure itself harks back to the concept that all of cinema is based on a ‘chase’. It is a clever, self-reflexive work of art that shows the creative potential of the format and suggests that perhaps all films have animation at their core because editing is a form of animation in itself. The film can be found on YouTube.

From Švankmajer’s stop-motion to Linklater’s abstraction, animated films are exceptionally diverse, and filmmakers never run out of ways to experiment with the form. The examples selected above demonstrate a number of different approaches and show just how universal the format is. A lot of the directors have also shown a particular auteurist quality in their work, Sylvain Chomet for example has created a particular style through his animated films that is instantly recognisable. Please feel free to leave your own recommendations, the more unusual the better.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

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  1. Wrinkles is such a great movie! saw it a few days ago and i’m still moved by the feelings that run throughout the movie… it’s animated filmmaking at its best with a very well written and moving story. most movies fail to capture the complications of being elderly in such a subtle and moving way as this movie did.

    • Yea I just saw this movie at the Scottsdale Film Festival. I was deeply moved, as well as entertained.

  2. Milo Rodrigue

    I think Angel’s Egg is one of the best hidden gems from the last 25 years or so. It’s very hard to compare other animated films to it. I see very few in American animation.

    • Although it’s not anime, The movie “Mirrormask” would probably appeal to you. The storyline is somewhat similar, about a young girl who manages to cross over from reality to her dream world and finds herself in a large, deserted city that is home to some very bizarre creatures/characters, lots of special effects. Very Surreal and darkly atmospheric.

  3. Brittany Goodin

    I have to admit that I haven’t seen the majority of these, but I’m convinced I should watch them all now! I always want suggestions of good foreign films, anyhow.

  4. Brittany Goodin

    I must admit I haven’t seen the majority of these, but now I’ve added them to my to watch list. I’m always looking for good foreign films to watch anyhow.

  5. Great article! I’ll be certain to check some of these out. Waking Life in particular seems really interesting. Love your insight!

    • Alice Bishop

      Thanks 🙂 I’d also recommend Linklater’s other animated film A Scanner Darkly if you do end up liking Waking Life.

  6. Lila Tran

    Waking Life is worth many multiple viewings for those who enjoy deep thought about the myriad ways of considering the basic mysteries of existence/consciousness (those who don’t, won’t enjoy it).

  7. carranza

    i know belleville was a very good movie, and i understand the point and everything, but i have to admit it sorta scares me. i never get scared, i watch horror movies and stuff and this is probably the only movie that actually had me wierded out when i watched it. i dont know why, i think its the way its put together plus the animation and stuff, i dunno

    • Alice Bishop

      I understand what you mean. Some of the characters are genuinely terrifying – the waiter and the man writing the bets on the chalkboard are two that stand out for me.

    • It is pretty intense for a cartoon! Plus, the plot is definately not predictable. And the people themselves are all drawn very oddly. So weird, but very enjoyable, IMO.

    • Whitlow

      I don’t know what to say, yeah the movie is weird looking, but, I didn’t find anyone scary, I thought each character looked kinda cute in their own way, even the big guys in black, well not cute, I thought they were funny, but not scary, I mean, I saw the movie again recently for the 4th time and I cannot see the creepiness you are talking about whatsoever, what I am trying to say is that, I am really curious why you see it creepy, the only part that freaked me out was the dead frogs, that was freaky, but, because of how they moved like zombie frogs or something, I think they even show a frog with no arms what the hell

  8. Pointer

    Waking Life was a film about life. And a good one. I recommend it to friends all the time. Lovely list of animation films.

    • Alice Bishop

      I agree. Although most of the films I have listed are favourites of mine, Waking Life is a real stand-out for me, possibly in my top ten films of all time.

  9. Danny Cox

    Hey Alice, thanks for the recommendations and the intriguing article. The animation for Granpa drew me in, as it looks pretty unusual as well as time-consuming to make. I will definitely be giving some of these a try!

  10. Helen Parshall

    I will have to give these a watch sometime, thanks for the excellent list.

  11. Belleville Rendezvous is fantastic! It has an unparalleled amount of charm. I don’t think there’s much else to be said…

  12. Onie Speer

    Spiklenci slasti is amazing, there isn’t any spoken dialogue of note and a whole world is created.

  13. I just watched Waltz With Bashir and was moved, appalled and stunned. The look is so different from any other film, mixing incredible violence with banal talking heads, the dream dogs, the flares in the sky and the ending.

    • Another great animated, devastating “war” film with a nice message would be Grave of the Fireflies. A must-see.

  14. Persepolis is one I would add to the list.

    • Alice Bishop

      Ah yes, I saw that a few years ago and remember enjoying it. It’s similar to Waltz With Bashir if I’m not mistaken..in a good way 🙂

  15. Korrallon

    Having grown up watching animated films and television shows, I have never heard of any of these titles aside from Grandpa. They all seem to carry a message of some sort and I will defiantly have to check them out. Nicely written article friend 🙂

  16. Amena Banu

    This is a very interesting study! The title drew me in. The format is really original, and I loved reading it.

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