How Empathy Makes Katawa Shoujo Worth Playing

Visual novels (VN) have often had a bad rap of being glorified dating sims that contain hentai, or mature sexual content. However, there are many that stand out among the rest for their exceptional quality and their ability to tackle mature topics. One of the most prolific of these visual novels is Katawa Shoujo, translated as “Disability Girls.” Released in 2012, it originated from a sketch of girls with various disabilities by Japanese artist RAITA. The image circulated the 4chan image board in 2007 where members of the image board formed Four Leaf Studios, named after 4chan’s four leaf clover logo. The studio, consisting of fans brought together by a mutual love of VNs, was created to develop and produce a visual novel based off the image which is now available in English, French, International Spanish, and Japanese. The story revolves around Hisao Nakai, a boy who is forced to transfer to Yamaku High School, a school for the disabled, as a result of a heart condition. Initially bitter about his situation, the player, controlling Hisao, can create relationships and interactions with other students where he learns to grow as a person.

The VN branches into different paths depending on the player's choices.
The VN branches into different paths depending on the player’s choices.

There are five main girls that Hisao can interact with: legless Emi Ibarazaki, scarred Hanako Ikezawa, blind Lilly Satou, armless Rin Tezuka and mute and deaf Shizune Hakamichi. Each of these girls have their own disabilities and routes, which are determined by the choices of the player and can result in good, bad or neutral endings. Each of them have their own effect on Hisao which changes the way he views the world and the decisions he makes in life. So what makes Katawa Shoujo special? Unlike most other visual novels, it has an important and always present theme that it carries throughout its entirety: empathy. It also has the goal of teaching the player a lesson about our preconceptions about disabilities as well as breaking the mold of visual novels before it.

The following will contain minor spoilers, although the writer has tried their best to include as few as possible. The writer highly recommends that you experience Katawa Shoujo on your own time. It should also be noted that Katawa Shoujo does contain mature content, although most of the material can be censored in the options. As a result, it is recommended only to those 18 years of age and up. The article is appropriate for all ages.

Katawa Shoujo teaches a lesson about empathy and pity

When Hisao first comes to Yamaku High, a school for the physically disabled, he’s jaded and lost. After the long hospitalization, Hisao finds himself with no friends, distant parents and a loss of his independence. He starts the story with nothing but a broken heart, literally and metaphorically.

What gets him out of his sea of languor is the time he spends with the main five girls. Despite their situations, they prove to him that they’re not defined by their disability and are capable on their own, if not more capable than Hisao himself. Emi is a track star, Shizune is the student council president, Lilly is her classroom’s representative and Rin is a talented artist. Hanako is special out of the five as her disability doesn’t directly influence her ability to act, but instead comes in as a lesson near the end of her route. To avoid spoilers, this won’t be elaborated on too deeply, but her bad end comes from being overprotective and not giving her the space she needs. By playing the role of the “white knight” as expected of the player in visual novels, they can do a lot more harm than good. Lilly says it best herself: ” If you’d pitied us, I would have been quite offended.” In the end, the girls don’t need Hisao to be their Prince Charming. Katawa Shoujo tries to get the player out of the hero mindset because Hisao isn’t a hero like in other visual novels – he’s every bit as flawed as the rest of the cast. This comes back to empathy – Hisao can only grow his relationship with others by learning to empathize for them rather than pity them.

All five girls prove they are capable despite the odds against them.
All five girls prove they are capable despite the odds against them.

The help that Hisao gets isn’t out of pity either; every girl treats Hisao as their equal despite Hisao’s own views on himself and his illness. Depending on the route, Hisao learns to see his life in a different light. He changes from this apathetic and unlikable character into someone who accepts that his life will be tough with his disability, but it isn’t over. He changes from someone full of angst over the idea of going to a school for disabled people into someone who realizes that his disability doesn’t define him or the people he meets there. On the other hand, the player is like Hisao in many ways: an average, able-bodied person who enters a completely foreign world of disabilities. Both the player and Hisao start with an almost socialized negative view on those with disabilities. By putting the player in the shoes of someone who is now part of this disabled group, Katawa Shoujo allows for the player to see the world as someone who they would normally shun or pity as well as interact with the kind of people who most normally wouldn’t interact with. As Hisao changes, the player begins to change too. He learns to accept others, what life has thrown at him and most important, himself. We learn to view people with disabilities as more than just their disability.

Katawa Shoujo isn’t just about dating girls or having sex

This sounds like a controversial statement considering that the player does end up dating one of the five main girls throughout every route of the story, but it’s important to take a step back and look at the bigger picture. Although Hisao does enter a relationship, it’s secondary to the real lessons he gets from each of these routes. He makes mistakes. He does new things. He learns to see life in a different light and he gets something out of the story that’s more important than the girlfriend. Even the mature sexual content can be censored out completely without sacrificing character development. Compared to other VNs where sexual content can be gratuitous and shoe-horned in as fan service, Katawa Shoujo keeps it as tasteful as possible and portrays it without glorification. The characters are occasionally intimately involved as part of their relationship and the VN keeps it at that.

Every character’s route in the visual novel comes with a question about their story. Emi’s asks “Can you stand up for yourself?” while Lilly’s asks “Can you see what I see?”. Hanako’s asks “Can you face your fears?”, Rin’s asks “Can you seize the day?” and Shizune’s asks “Can you tell me what you think?”. Asides from their reference to the character’s disabilities, these questions give insight into what Hisao and the player need to do. Can we answer those questions? If the player can understand the characters and see them as more than just goals in a dating sim or as disabled things to pity, we can guide Hisao to make the right choices to the good routes. The player is rewarded for their sense of empathy.

Although the player ends up on dates with the girl of the route, they aren't the main focus.
Although the player ends up on dates with the girl of the route, they aren’t the main focus of the VN.

The most heart-breaking and the most heart-warming moments come from the challenges that Hisao and the five main characters have to face and whether they can overcome them. Most of these challenges are ones that people experience commonly in life like parental pressure or loss of a family member. These are real issues and as the player, we can empathize with them. More importantly, Katawa Shoujo makes the player want to understand. We can see ourselves in these characters, characters that become people in every sense of the word. They are flawed, damaged and have insecurities just like the rest of us. They have their moments of happiness that we want to treasure with them. They’re just ordinary people who happen to have disabilities and problems that we can understand.

Katawa Shoujo was made by the internet with a love for VNs in mind

With the release of the Japanese translation, Four Leaf Studios has said that they’re mostly finished with Katawa Shoujo. From its origins on an image board in 2007 to its complete and final release in 2015, it’s been a long journey from a sketch to a fully fledged visual novel. In fact, during those five years there was doubt that the project would ever have been finished. Taking on the challenge of creating a visual novel was hard enough, but to make one as high quality and respectful as Katawa Shoujo was a different matter entirely. What makes Katawa Shoujo so special in the end was the love that was put into it by communities all over the Internet. Not made for profit or for fame, Four Leaf Studios pushed forward through the five years of development while the rest of the community pushed them from behind. From humble beginnings of a single drawing on 4chan, communities from across the world gave their input and talents into translating and making Katawa Shoujo the best it could be. In the end, it’s the product of people from all around the world, of different races, beliefs and cultures, coming together through the internet and making something that they love together. That’s something special.

Katawa Shoujo is pure and sincere. It does its very best to invoke empathy in the player while being witty, thought-provoking, and an emotional ride all the way through. It looks and plays like a visual novel, but it doesn’t bring the baggage that visual novels carry like gratuitous sexual content. It stays grounded in our reality, making it so much easier to connect and relate to. It comes from the hearts of people connected by the Internet and brought together through a mutual interest. Written with love, drawn with love, composed and designed with love, Katawa Shoujo came to be, all thanks to the overwhelming and heartwarming support of communities that came together in 2007 and stuck it out to the end.

Love is what brought this project to life.
Love is what brought this project to life and makes it stand out among the rest.

As the article suggests, I’m a huge supporter and fan of Katawa Shoujo. If you’d like to experience this on your own time, you can download it for free. I highly recommend that you sit down and put in the time to play at least one of the routes before you look up walkthroughs or spoilers about other routes.

What do you think? Leave a comment.

Posted on by
Alchemist based in Ontario.

Want to write about Games or other art forms?

Create writer account


  1. Adnan Bey

    I am one of the few who can safely say I managed to naturally play through Rin’s storyline and achieve the good ending. Not to say it was easy. It was hard. And this is probably the only article about this game I ever played. You’re so right when you say nobody pays much attention to VNs outside of Japan. I personally enjoyed this one and I love Four Leaf Studios for making it. And well done for writing this. Loved it.

  2. Howland

    This game heavily reminds me of Phoenix Wright games, which also have great (and somewhat similar) art, music and amazing storytelling.

  3. ChinaBlood

    This game, in my opinion, Is one of the best games ever made (Closely followed by kotor and dragon age) This is the first game to ever bring me to tears and i thank four leaf studios for that

  4. I honestly wish this game didn’t have sex scenes at all. It serves as detrimental to what it managed to accomplish and like 80% of the time they are so freaking out of place.

    • Careless Lion

      I can understand your opinion, but I think that they come pretty naturally throughout the story – sex happens between teens and they aren’t too gratuitous. Besides, you can turn them off as I said.

    • Adnan Bey

      They didn’t bother me too much since I turned them off. There was just a big barbecued chicken on the screen instead.

    • To me, sex in a movie, game or VN can be used appropriately to symbolize a true bond of love between 2 well developed characters, which this game did. They can be a little awkward, but sex is almost always awkward.

  5. Brian Westley

    Somehow you flipped the last group photo, as Hanako’s scars are on the wrong side (though the logo has the bandage on the correct side).

  6. I think sex skills be included in games. After reading through this article though I’m thinking that in this genre AI may need to be added do the girls aren’t just a path you can take our a path you end up on just fur being sympathetic.

    • Careless Lion

      I’m really curious of what you mean by AI – do you mean instead of paths, there are characters governed by AI personalities?

      • Yes, with some randomness thrown in. Also why not add other make npc characters that can date out compete for their hearts as well.

  7. CMiddle

    The only thing I frown upon is the perception of KS as a game. The term “visual novel” describes it very well and should be used. It’s a novel with visual elements, not an RPG or a dating sim where the player has a great deal of input. Your “choices” determine the girl you get stuck with, and then how the story ends.

    • Careless Lion

      I can see what you mean, VNs have always been in an uneasy place – for a large portion of its development, KS had issues fitting into the anime, video game or writing boards of 4chan. In the end, it found a home at the video game board so it’s usually easier to see it as a game in that respect.

  8. Destiny

    I got the game today, I played the first 30 minutes. I think the characters look quite nice. The music is a bit better than I expected, and so far the story isn’t bad. I think I’ll enjoy this game.

  9. I love this game.

  10. Katawa Shoujo. Its a good game and full of feels and good characterization.

  11. With NO experience in visual novels, and very little experience with dating sims (having only played them briefly when I was a young teen because… reasons…), this was a very well made game that I can appreciate because of its writing, art, development of character, as well as very well plotted story for the most part.

  12. Best. Soundtrack. Ever.

  13. I guess it is kind of like the Telltale games but with a little less interaction.

    • Careless Lion

      Not quite since there’s no puzzles and no outworld interaction – it’s far closer to a choose-your-own-adventure book.

  14. I would never call this a dating sim. Its not and shouldn’t be sold as one its a great interactive novel that teaches you that not everyone has the same problems and that ours aren’t always the most important. It also teaches you that you need to think of others and not just yourself. Katawa Shoujo is a great interactive novel and I believe everyone should give it a chance.

  15. I like how seriously this game is about the girls, not making light about people with disabilities.

  16. Dorian Ledbetter

    This was my first graphic novel and it was the best, nothing even comes close to touching this masterpiece. The scenes were very mature and instead of thinking about which girl to fuk, i was thinking which girl i want to help and be with.

    I almost instantly felt connected to these girls and all the people in it, even Kenji. I really wish they made another game. I would throw my money at them if they did another game like this. However, not a sequel because the endings were very satisfying already.

  17. Thanks I’ll definitely try it!

  18. I love this game! Hanaka just lights my heart up like a lantern! She’s so cute.

  19. Funnily enough I played this game, and then 6 months later was in a car accident and became an amputee. (Right leg) I am so keen to replay this game with a completely different point of view on the subject! Solid article.

  20. I have never heard of this before but looks like I might enjoy it!

  21. Being disabled myself, KS hit me in some emotional parts. The messages it carries about being more than just your disability are important.

  22. Gilchrist

    I tried a few visual novels, but I never followed through with them. A lot of the good ones get an anime adaption, so I usually just watch that instead. You should try the Clannad visual novel. The anime brought me to tears, so I assume the VN would do the same. In fact, it’s the only show to ever bring me to tears.

  23. Katawa Shoujo , I think it was one of the first Visual Novels I played , at first I did not like because it was pure read.

  24. CoffeeHipster

    Not being much of a VN player myself I knew that there were other VN’s out their that didn’t conform to the norm of today’s industry. But Katawa Shoujo really hits it out of the park in that regard. I look forward to giving it a shot in the near future.

  25. There are a whole host of marvelous VNs out there. It makes me sad that few take the time to explore them

    Key is a very famous company for producing great VNs. They produce VNs that tend to give you the feels. Tomoyo After especially hit me hard.

    Sekaiproject is a kickstarter group currently attempting to localize more games officially, giving us access to these wonderful stories.

    I’d advise people to check out Grisaia no Kajitsu, a very character-centric VN, Ever17, Symphonic Rain, Science Adventure Series (Chaos;Head Steins;gate …). These are really wonderful VNs with more than just “go get the girl”

  26. GiovanniZeko

    I was able to 100% the whole game (Lilly was my favorite route). Overall I think being able to see the world from a perspective of those with handicaps (sure in a romantic setting) widened my view and really allowed me to have empathy for them. Most of the girls weren’t just handicapped, they had such sad backgrounds. Like Hanako or Emi. I really felt attached to each one as I played their routes and thought about how life might be if I was to be in their situation or Hisao’s. It makes you appreciate your life more after living their struggles and coping with just how hard it can be to live.

  27. I think this article for a great job differentiating between a visual novel that has sex in it and those where sex is the point. I think there is definitely more space for discussion about other visual novels that fall in this category like the works of KEY like Clannad and Air.

  28. MovedByKS

    I am absolutely late to this thread, but I just completed my first “run” of KS, my first VN. I got the “good” ending for Emi and it almost brought me to tears. I love how (as many of the others have pointed out) the focus is on the girls and their personalities/stories, and not directly on the disabilities. Many times during my run I worried that I may have chosen the wrong option and ruined everything, I cared almost too much about how Emi felt…

    KS really touched me on a deep level. I don’t know if I’m able to play any other visual novel again, because this was so good. It’s really weird to say, but I think that KS, a visual novel really changed my outlook on life.

    No one’s probably going to read this, but I’m leaving this out here so someone, who feels as touched and moved by this game after their first completion can come and see that they are not alone.

    • MovedByKS


      I forgot to add, that I loved the fact that the premise of the game was not so much on the dating aspect, but more on the overall character development of Hisao and the forming of friendships and relationships with the girls.

  29. (I’m French, so please excuse my language by advance)
    Thank you for this awesome article about one of my favorite story! You sure look like you know your subject, so I would like to ask you: do you know about another great visual novel, not the classic “Me beautiful, me will have sex” that we can encounter in the VN world?
    I’m not that disgusted by the mature sexual content, but I don’t think sex must be the point of the VN.
    Also, as you can read it, I’m confident in my abilities to translate a long text from English to French, but I’d rather read it in French if possible.
    If someone wants to talk more about it, let me know it in the comment section

  30. (I’m French, so please excuse my language by advance)
    Thank you for this awesome article about one of my favorite story! You sure look like you know your subject, so I would like to ask you: do you know about another great visual novel, not the classic “Me beautiful, me will have sex” that we can encounter in the VN world?
    I’m not that disgusted by the mature sexual content, but I don’t think sex must be the point of the VN.
    Also, as you can read it, I’m confident in my abilities to translate a long text from English to French, but I’d rather read it in French if possible.
    If someone wants to talk more about it, let me know it in the comment section.

  31. this game changed the way i view people and how they act its also changed how i view myself as a person

Leave a Reply