How Manchester by the Sea Turns Social Realism into Social Feelism

Rare is it to find a film which contains moments both understated and deeply emotional at one time, but Manchester by the Sea is exactly that movie. In reality, it’s that movie several times over. A relative unicorn in the seemingly endless spate of emotionally heightened prestige movies which litter our screens in winter time, Manchester by the Sea is social realism at its sparkling (if that were ever a word to describe the genre) best. This article will look at the movies ability to generate emotional scenes from its difficult material without ever veering into melodrama, from its stellar acting and masterful script to its naturalistic dialogue and careful editing. So if you’re a fan of Michael Bay smash-fests or Shakespearean soliloquys, this article may not be for you, although it may be great material to send you to sleep, so why not have a gander further down? But of course, beware spoilers that follow.

A Lesson in Time

The structure in Manchester by the Sea is of course nothing new, flashing back to and from the present is almost as old as cinema itself, but the way Kenneth Lonergan uses it creates an unnerving mix of anticipation and anxiety, while never forgetting to keep the laughs ticking over. And that’s a surprise in itself. Knowing anything about the movie’s premise, you’d probably be surprised to hear that there were any laughs in the movie at all, but there are actually many. Most of these laughs find their place in the flashback part of the narrative where a jovial Casey Affleck juxtaposes the silent brooding janitor we encounter in the present. But the fact Manchester by the Sea has this many laughs anyway is in itself testament to the social realism it so accurately portrays, rarely in life is there such a prolonged period of misery or doom without someone attempting to mine it for laughs.

The double-act of Affleck and Hedges doing their best to convince you that I’m wrong and there is no laughs in the movie whatsoever.

As we spend more time with both past and future Affleck’s, we play a moving image version of spot the difference, eventually noticing the biggest anomaly is the distinct lack of his family in present day scenes. This fact is never really made to be secret but the reason for their absence is rarely hinted at for long periods in the movie, leaving the audience to gestate possible outcomes in their noggins. As most human minds probably lean into imagining a terrible fate for the characters on screen, there are likely few who predict exactly what the cause for their conspicuous absence is. But then, making guesses, successful or otherwise, is hardly what a movie like Manchester by the Sea is made for. So even if you were shocked by the time the big reveal comes around, it doesn’t leave you in a complete state of exasperation, but more contemplation. Whether you’re contemplating how you would deal with things in the same situation or how fine the line between life and death can be, this zippy structure within the movie not only explains the character of Lee Chandler so well it feels like you know him, but also keeps the story feeling entirely realistic and understandable. American painter Raphael Soyer once said “if art is to survive it must describe and express people, their lives and times”, so if you take any stock in his words whatsoever then Manchester by the Sea deserves to live long in our memories.

Great movies are of course a mixture of many fine ingredients and one of the best utilised facets in this movie is the lead performances of Affleck and teenager Lucas Hedges.

Embodying Grief

A movie about loss and new beginnings is an exceedingly tempting choice of source material for actors during award season, but despite ticking these very same boxes, the actors in Manchester by the Sea don’t really have a stand-out showy scene to choose for their nomination clip at this year’s Academy Awards. Yes, the lead pairing of Affleck and Hedges were nominated for a shiny bald man award like many before them have been for similar roles, but their performances are not exactly characteristic of the genre in ways we have come to expect. When there is a death onscreen, we usually expect a tour-de-force scene where the lead actor reacts to said demise and their anguish affects those watching in a number of ways. A popular tactic in these cases are over-wrought instances where thespians bellow out inaudible throat eruptions and a steady stream of tears. Think of Donald Sutherland in Don’t Look Now for a good example, think of Al Pacino in The Godfather Part 3 for a bad one.

Al Pacino screaming with pain and anguish in The Godfather Part 3

But so assured is Manchester by the Sea with its ability to construct a believable transition of grieving that it doesn’t feel the need to linger on the passing of Lee’s three children, n’or exploit their sad deaths any longer than it has to. The term actions speak louder than words is a sentiment that looms large over most of the movie, and there is no action bigger or more significant than the image of Lee Chandler’s house burning down as he watches on helplessly. And it’s another action that follows shortly after that scene which actually serves as Affleck’s big emotional reaction. But it’s almost a polar opposite to the aforementioned camera-hogging that many actors are guilty of in similar award-bait films.

After finding out that he is to be released scot-free following his fatal mistake, Lee grabs at a policeman’s gun and raises it to his head, only to find the safety still on. This short scene does two things simultaneously, it firstly represents the complete unpredictability of a mind consumed by grief and guilt, while also expertly illustrating the complete character change between past and future Lees. It also explains why Affleck’s character is so unaffected by his brother’s death in the movie’s initial scenes, he’s still grieving over his own loss. Yes, he’s not crying or discussing his problems with any of the people he surrounds himself with, because that would mean dealing with the horrible guilt he attempted to shoot from his life. But that doesn’t mean he isn’t still wrestling with it. So committed to his staunch resistance of moving on is Chandler that he actually escapes the one scene where he is expected, and almost beckoned, to explode and let his anguish out. When Michelle Williams, as Lee’s ex-wife, attempts to drag her former husband into facing their shared misery, writer-director Lonergan refuses to give Affleck the chance to stretch his theatrical muscles with a well-timed explosion of emotion.

Instead, the Oscar-winning actor shows a desperate grit which remains utterly relatable. Realistically, how often do everyday people burst out in despair on street corners in your local town? Regardless of whether or not they are being reminded of a truly horrendous time in their life, it’s essentially not a common reaction for people to act out. And despite this not exactly playing into the expected format of a movie gunning for Academy Award gold, it further reinforces it’s social-realism roots and thus makes it that little bit more empathetic for watching audiences.

Lucas Hedges showcasing one of the many faces of grief in Manchester by the Sea

Grief itself, as well as emotion on the whole, is unpredictable, and despite making fun of melodramatic reactions, a la Pacino, I’m sure in some instances they’re just as common as the understated one on display by Casey Affleck. But because this movie is actually about two coinciding timelines of grief, we’re treated to another subtle nuance on this emotion through young Lucas Hedges’ portrayal of Patrick.

When discussing Lucas Hedges’ work, two quotes come to mind. The first from C.S Lewis’ collection of essays on bereavement, A Grief Observed, and the second from Roger Fry’s seminal work of art criticism Vision and Design. Considering Hedges’ character of Patrick had known about his father’s impending death for a considerable amount of time, it’s not entirely surprising that his initial reaction is almost as muted as his Uncle Lee’s. But as the running time progresses and Patrick is forced to attend more and more maudlin chores, we begin to take his strength and fortitude for granted. Which is what makes his sudden breaking down even more of a shock.

In a previous scene where he finds out that his father will be preserved in the morgue for a couple of months until he can be buried, we understand Patricks’ uneasiness with the concept. But after hearing uncle Lee claim that “there’s nothing we can do about it”, we accept that conclusion and assume young Patrick does also. So when Hedges’ character goes rummaging through the freezer for a late-night snack and suffers what seems like a panic-attack, it’s kind of easy to understand. CS Lewis said that “no one ever told me that grief felt so like fear” and it’s simple to recognise both of these emotions clashing with one another in this short scene. The grief of losing his only present parent, the fear of not knowing who will care for him now, these emotions are enough to overtake the most together of people, so watching them strike a struggling teenager with no prior warning is a potent combination to witness on screen. True to the movie’s penchant for realism, this scene is surprisingly also one of the funniest in the movie and it showcases some great slapstick work from Lucas Hedges. Grievance is perhaps the most difficult emotion to contend with and it can often be triggered in unpredictable circumstances. So when you read Fry’s quote of “art appreciates emotion in and for itself”, you realise just how striking a piece of art Manchester by the Sea must be.

Not content with leaving the actors to pull the brunt of the work in portraying a realistic emotional tome, Kenneth Lonergan and his team behind the camera also work in several more interesting techniques to evoke emotion in the strict confines of reality.

Shots, Symbolism and Scenery

Kenneth Lonergan on set of Manchester by the Sea

There’s a few telling scenes in Manchester by the Sea where a lot of information is conveyed without an ounce of exposition. Various points in the movie have such success telegraphing emotion to its audience that it feels as if it’s been intravenously pumped into our systems. Considering the movies’ huge emotional happenings, you would perhaps forgive the film if it chose to exploit said sad situations, but Lonergan doesn’t make more out of the fatal accident then he ever has to. Films more obsessed with bludgeoning an emotional reaction from the audience would perhaps have double the screen-time committed to the fire which claimed Lee’s three children, but Manchester by the Sea is more concerned with charting a realistic journey through grief. At several points in the movie we see Lee arranging three photographs very carefully on his bedside table, but not once does the camera ever pan around to reveal the pictures. We of course know that they are pictures of Lee’s children, but the fact that we never have to actually be shown that fact speaks volumes. It’s not our loss to come to grips with. The obvious exploitative shot of their faces would cause an audience to bawl more, yes. But it’s the characters on screen who have to deal with that loss, so watching their reaction to the photos is far more telling for the story we’re watching unfold.

Seeing both Lee and Patrick react to the photos not only serves to explain Casey Affleck’s character but also the understanding of his character from others’ point of view. In addition to this, they’re also a metaphor for the deeply buried emotional baggage that Lee Chandler is clinging onto. Having spent most of the run-time pondering just how someone like Lee can live their life without so much as a semblance of joy, the audience is gradually introduced to the idea of him finally moving on when he takes on more paternal responsibilities for the likeable Patrick. The fact that he makes the decision to move his stuff in with his nephew gives the audience further hope that Patrick’s positive demeanour will perhaps rub off on his uncle. But when Lee returns to his dank bedsit to pack his belongings, what could be viewed as a positive step towards a new chapter, also has some worrying imagery. As Lee carefully positions the photos on the bedside table in his new home in Manchester, we slowly realise the significance of that act. Lee is so unable to shed the loss of his family that despite having to make some life changes and take on new responsibilities, he will always carry those photos, and grief, around with him. This physical manifestation of grief is a striking one for both its simplicity and symbolism. When Lee later says in the movie “I can’t beat it”, no matter how much we want him and Patrick to continue their burgeoning relationship, we have absolutely no trouble believing him.

Casey Affleck ponders the past and his future in Manchester by the Sea

Manchester by the Sea is a striking movie for many reasons, it’s cinematography, wonderful acting and incredible casting are merely a few of the main facets for this. But it’s the movies social realist approach that makes it such compulsive viewing. There are many movies, especially around award season, that attempt to cram in emotion by the bucket-load so audiences can generate authentic reactions. But by switching the emphasis of authenticity to the story itself, Manchester by the Sea comes off as one of the most natural movies in recent history, being both relatable and believable in equal doses. Yes, it’s an emotive movie which aims for you to experience real feelings, but it does so in a naturalistic way that many others cannot. And it is for that reason why it should tower over many movies made in the same vein, while also being right at the very top of your must-see list.



Don’t Look Now. Dir. Nicholas Roeg. British Lion Films, 1973. DVD.

Manchester by the Sea. Dir. Kenneth Lonergan. Amazon Studios, 2016. Cinema.

The Godfather Part 3. Dir. Francis Ford Coppola. Paramount Pictures, 1990. DVD.


Fry, R, Vision and Design. Wentworth Press, 1920. Print.

Lewis, CS, A Grief Observed. Faber and Faber, 1961. Print.

Raphael Soyer quoted in: Schwartz N. Barry, The New Humanism: Art in a Time of Change. Praeger, 1974. Print.

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  1. This is one of the best American made films in many years. No hugging and no fuzzy-wuzzy scenes of family bonding as in so many others. I think it probably portrays most families quite accurately.

  2. I really liked the film but I thought Casey Affleck was channeling his inner Mark Ruffalo a bit too much. Other than that it was great.

  3. I enjoyed the film but wished there was more of Michelle Williams and Kyle Chandler. Casey Affleck tried to be very expressive while being very reticent, the type of thing that Michael Kitchen does so well (e.g., in Foyle’s War). He certainly mastered the reticence but I found his performance muted, not deep, and rather one-tone.

  4. NewComb

    I still feel a bit drained after seeing this. It’s an immensely powerful film. Very rare to see Hollywood create something so real and moving. Loved affleck in it, the full force of what has happened to him raging internally, bursting out every now and then. A very hard thing to convey. The comedy in the film was well balanced and allows the audience to breath.

  5. Comcast

    I enjoyed the naturalistic elements of the movie and the sincerity. The dynamic between Lee an Patrick was especially convincing. Michelle Williams was the only unconvincing note. However not one coloured face in the whole movie and a repressed, working class community of white collar workers.

    • The real life town of Manchester is 97.6% white, and the film itself is a family-focused drama. The opening sequence, set in Quincy, features several black characters, including Lee’s boss.

      • Comcast

        Precisely my point no major character is an actor of colour suggesting that Manchester is a conservative religious town with undercurrents of racism. On a broader level though it’s a fictional story that could have challenged the liberal art house crowd it’s aimed at by having black or gay major characters. Diversity is something that doesn’t happen on its own.

  6. Spectacular and sensitive performance!

  7. It’s a very good drama. I was surprised to find Lonergan under-cutting the horror of the film’s main cause for the grief with heavy handed scoring. This is something a lesser filmmaker would do.

  8. BradHumphrey

    It’s terribly shallow of me, I know, but given the world’s prevailing madness I don’t think I can bear too much gloomy reality at the moment. As a reminder of the beauty and importance of hope and courage the stunning documentary ‘The Eagle Huntress’ cheered me up no end – for those things are real too.

  9. Dr. Vishnu Unnithan

    Fine article on a moving film. I especially likes the quotes you used. Looking forward to reading more from you.

  10. The color palette also lends itself to the tone of this film. It’s one of those films where you’re really glad you saw it but you probably never want to watch it again.

  11. Andreas

    Go and see this beauty film, honestly one of the most raw and gritty American films I’ve seen in a long while. It’s dark, tragically, honest, beautiful, and incredibly funny at times – just like life.

  12. Fontaine

    Good analysis. Saw it recently. Very good. Heavy going though.

  13. Needlessly overly long, I thought. Too monotone as well. The unbearable nephew was much too unbearable to add enough relief to the film to keep my interest from fading. Affleck, yes, I like his acting – does anyone do depressed better than him? The soundtrack is pretty boringly uninspiring – not that you’re meant to be inspired. Not a film I’d sit though again willingly.

    • Chau Baca

      Yep a lot of film makers think that the grief or sadness alone is enough,but it still needs to be presented in a multi faceted form to make it bearable and interesting

    • Lawrence

      I don’t think it’s monotone tone exactly. People laughed in my screening, multiple times, and I think there’s an undercurrent of very dark wit that keeps it from just wearing you out before it’s half way through.

  14. The scene as he leaves the interview room at the police station just f*ckin’ slayed me. Thank god I went to an afternoon screening. Not sure I could have handled being that emotionally raw in a packed out cinema.

  15. No Hollywood schmaltz, just real life. Great musical score and scenery.

  16. Read the script for this. Very well done.

  17. Burnside

    Manchester by the canal. A sequel by Ken Loach with derivative characters and working class idealism

  18. Bo Crayton

    Profoundly enriching experience. Go watch La La Land if you don’t dig reality.

  19. This guy’s previous film ‘Margaret’ is also a ‘minor-key masterpiece’.

  20. I just found it to be too depressing. Never thought an alternative Manchester could be even more grim than the original.

  21. The score should get some credit. Brilliant use of original music and some classics helped make this one of the best films I have seen for a long time, up there with ‘Secrets and Lies’.

  22. Perfect film. Heartbreaking and brilliantly acted which the whole film is. Affleck deserves ten Oscars for his contribution.

  23. Wonderful film, very human – also quite funny. The trailer didn’t do it justice. Excellent relationship between Casey Affleck & the nephew . The nephew is excellent

  24. A beautiful film.

  25. Christina Airola

    After watching this film, I went and looked at the reviews. The majority of people who saw it and disliked it claimed that it was “boring” and “slow.” U think these people just didn’t get it.

    This isn’t a film that’s intending to glorify grief or to show the 12-step program for making it through grief and finding your way out on the other side. It’s a very real portrait of grief. It’s honest and genuine, and that’s what I loved so much about this movie.

    At first, I felt a little cheated that he didn’t find some “silver lining” by the end of the film to help him get through things, but then I realized that’s not always how it works. Some people just get stuck and that’s sad. Towards the end, he says he just “can’t beat it.” That’s real and honest. I hate how real and honest it is because I want him to be okay but that’s not how it works. This is what I think negative critics to this movie failed to understand.

    This is a good article! You pointed out a lot of things I thought about it, too.

  26. Clay Cain

    Spectacular and Fabulous

  27. ashleyb

    good images

  28. Watching this film was a confronting, enriching experience. Truly great form of realism.

  29. I have been a longtime fan of Lonergan’s directorial debut, You Can Count on Me (2000). These two films share a universe in which the characters are living with grief and are attempting to move past it. In the former, however, the opening scene depicts the accident that claims the lives of the main characters’ parents. There is no ‘big reveal’.
    Lonergan exercises a lot of the same techniques in You Can Count on Me. Mark Ruffalo’s character, Terry, is a lot like Affleck’s Lee. And just like the character of Lee, the audience is left with an uncertain feeling about the prospects of Terry’s future. He just “can’t beat it.”
    Manchester by the Sea and You Can Count on Me are both fantastic movies. I hope to see more of their likes from Lonergan’s career.

  30. Mamchester By the Sea was a humerous melodrama that I surely enjoyed. I’m glad that Michael Bay was able to illusrate something so real and explored through such realism such as humor, pain, and how life proceeds after major characters in our lives pass away.

  31. I respect authors who do not engage with comments.

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