Pacific Rim: In-depth study of the influence of Anime
As an American born and raised in Japan in the 90’s, anime was a major source of entertainment. Hit Japanese animations such as Dragon Ball Z, Yu-Gi-Oh, Naruto, and – of course -- Pokemon were as popular in Japanese culture as Marvel and D.C. are in America. Like many devoted enthusiasts of anime, when I heard about Pacific Rim last year I was naturally very excited.
In 2013, esteemed director Guillermo del Toro (GDT) excited thousands of anime fans with the announcement of his film, Pacific Rim. Best known for directing Hellboy (2004) and Pan’s Labryinth (2006), GDT brought to life an exciting, fresh film that Anime fanatics can only dream about: giant monsters fighting giant robots. The film instantly captured the hearts of people around the world, long before script had been translated to the screen.
For those who have not kept up to date with action blockbusters, Pacific Rim takes place in a world not so different from our own. When legions of monstrous creatures, known as Kaiju, rise from the sea a war between humans and the Kaiju begin. To combat the giant Kaiju, a special type of massive robot weapon (mecha in anime) was devised: Jaegers. Two unlikely heroes- a washed up former pilot (Charlie Hunnam) and an untested trainee (Rinko Kikuchi) are teamed to drive a legendary but seemingly obsolete Jaeger from the past.
The blockbuster period where Pacific Rim was released has come and gone but the hype and rumors surrounding the film have not. Even though the film did not fair much greater than your typical action flick (7/10 on IMDB), between the mecha and kaiju, fans were quick to draw comparisons to Japanese pop culture. However, the film was not made with any intention of comparing with other films. GDT was quoted saying:
I felt there was a chance to do something fresh, something new that at the same time was conscious of the heritage, but not a pastiche or an homage or a greatest hits of everything. One of the first things I did is make it a point to not check any old movies or any other references. Like start from scratch. (Schaefer)
The amazing thing about Pacific Rim is when it came out last year anime fans were determined to compare the film with Neon Genesis Evangelion (NGE), one of the most well-known mecha anime of the 90’s. While it was exciting to have a live action film about the anime mecha (giant robot) genre that was not Transformers, the comparisons seems to have been taken to an extreme. Like with analysis of any creative work, speculation is nothing more than grasping at straws. Only by asking the production team will you know their intentions. Thankfully many interviewers did just that. Travis Beacham, the screenwriter says this:
I did love Evangelion very much, but I actually wrote most of Pacific Rim before I saw it. (Schaefer)
It is a note of extreme ignorance on the anime blogosphere’s part to assume that Evangelion was an influence on Pacific Rim just because it is a well-known title. For example, the articles by Tim Hornyak, Akyho, or Miss Booleana were written prior to published interviews with GDT about Pacific Rim.
Now that the bubble has burst, here is what Guillermo del Toro has to say about the comparisons to Evangelion:
I haven’t seen Evangelion. I accept you Patlabor, [as an influence] from anime industry, or, Tetsujin-28, I don’t have any problem saying ‘I love them’, ‘they’re an influence for me’. […] Yeah, there is anime influence [in Pacific Rim], but not from that anime in particular. (Schaefer)
Even though the movie may stand alone as unique to Western Culture, one cannot help but recognize the similarities between Pacific Rim and Japanese culture. Chuck Palahniuk, the author of Fight Club says: “That’s why I write, because life never works except in retrospect. You can’t control life, at least you can control your version”. What Palahniuk is trying to convey is that, in GDT’s case, one derives what they write about from their own experiences, whether it is conversations one’s heard or a television series one’s seen. Even if GDT made a conscious effort not to look back on “old movies” or other influences, at least if one follows Palahniuk’s philosophy, GDT was essentially creating his own version of his anime favorites through Pacific Rim.
Kaiju and Godzilla
Although it is not an anime, Pacific Rim manages to take the classic, horror monster, Godzilla, and bring it to life in a fresh, new way. Godzilla is a daikaiju (‘strange monster’) that first appeared in Ishiro Honda’s 1954 film Godzilla. In fact, GDT had every intention of hailing to this type of monster. “The first notion was to inform the ideas with the tradition of the kaiju eiga [Japanese giant monster films]” (Lambie)
Godzilla was initially created in light of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. The creature was born from the radiation caused by the explosion and rose from the sea. Godzilla then proceeds to wreak havoc across Tokyo and takes the lives of hundreds upon thousands of Japanese people. The creature both serves as a representation of fear over nuclear technology, and a metaphor for the destruction the nuclear bomb caused.
The Kaiju’s origins are very similar to Godzilla’s. Raleigh Beckett (Charlie Hunnam) states that “when alien life entered our world, it was from deep beneath the Pacific Ocean. A fissure between two tectonic plates.” While rising from the ocean is not enough of a parallel, GDT still alludes to the damaging trauma caused by the daikaiju during Mako’s flashback in the drift.
GDT continues to pay homage to the kaiju eja in designing the Kaiju. When coming up with initial designs, he wanted to focus on the silhouettes of their shapes. He wanted to preserve “the basic proportions of a man in a suit for the monsters” which is a technique used to create Godzilla in the original film. He also recognizes that, “in the traditional kaiju eiga, it’s easy to read the silhouettes -- it’s one of the unique things about those kinds of monsters” (Lambie).
Yet, even with allusions to the techniques and themes of the kaiju eiga, GDT was very careful to create monsters that are entirely new.
When detailing the monsters, I had the team reference real things, like in National Geographic, for example, the profile of a goblin shark, the skin of an elephant -- but not reference, ever, other movie monsters (Lambie)
Pacific Rim certainly delivers with its unique range of creatures with differing abilities and their destructive capabilities.
Godzilla is a creature that has often been recreated and presented in different ways throughout the years. This coming May, we will see Godzilla revamped again, presumably in a way that matches the destructive capabilities of the Kaiju. However, unlike Pacific Rim, humanity has little hope of victory.
What sets Pacific Rim apart from Godzilla is genre. As a modern-day horror film, humanity is not meant to stand up to, and eventually defeat, the kaiju eiga. However, the action film genre gives everyone a fighting chance. In the face of overwhelming circumstances, and with undeniable casualties, the monsters are defeated by the hope given to the people. In Pacific Rim, this hope is given shape in the form of mechas.
The Mecha Genre
The introduction of the mechs to Pacific Rim as a fighting force hails to Japan’s modern-day sentiments about technology. While the kaiju eiga, Godzilla, was a product of – and warning against – nuclear technology, humanity uses nuclear energy to save the world in Pacific Rim. The original Jaeger technology is nuclear powered and it is this technology that eventually saves humanity. In the years following Godzilla, Japan has taken a very pro-technology stance. Pacific Rim -- and the mecha genre as a whole -- take a stand in honor of technology. Travis Beacham is quoted saying:
Look, Japan loves its mecha. It doesn’t have the technological warning of Frankenstein. (Lambie)
It is important to understand what the mecha genre entails if one wants to explore this concept. The “mecha” aspect of the genre is simply the word that references the robots present in the anime, although the mecha anime themselves are usually a part of a project with multiple genres attached to it. Romance, drama, comedy, and science fiction are common extra genres paired with mecha. Sometimes a show comes along which tries to contain elements of all these aspects, which have a variety of results. This genre of anime has been divided into two sections.
Super Robot Anime
Mazinger Z is considered the beginnings of the super robot genre, and changed the face of mecha anime forever. It was the first anime that allowed the main character to pilot the robot from inside. Like GDT, the author of the original 1972 manga Go Nagai (Cutie Honey) was inspired by Tetsujin-28. The title character is the robot itself. It was created by forging new metals found at the top of Mount Fuji together. It was the first mecha anime to include the shouting out of attack names and many of the features which make up the super robot genre: playing an invincible dues ex machine role and combining with other robots to create bigger, more invincible, ridiculous looking creations (think Power Rangers).
The stories, like this one, have a large episode count which are usually episodic and have ‘monster of the week’ themes, of course, with an overarching story. The enemies are also usually not human. Does Pacific Rim utilize elements of the Super Robot genre? Only for about two minutes.
There is a scene near the end where multiple teams of pilots group together to fight one kaiju. One group in particular seem to have devised their own set of attacks. The fact that the enemies are from another universe and are alien creatures may also be a similarity to the super robot genre
By being influenced by Tetsujin-28 GDT was unintentionally being influenced by this title as well, since all mecha anime sprouted from the same seed. Might you have seen it before? In the same year the Mazinga Z comic was adapted to a 92 episode anime. It was broadcast in America in 1985 under the name: Tranzor Z. The character names were changed and only 65 of the original episodes were aired. In the opening sequence the same animation was used although the instrumental version for the song lays underneath a stupid, corny narration – please take a look if you would like a laugh.
It also became a big hit in Mexico in 1980’s, although they were fortunate enough to not have an edited version. Since its original publication the series has branched into a multitude of spin offs, including an alternate retelling of the series made in 2009 called Shin Mazinger Shogeki! Z Hen. The series appears to have kept the integrity of the simplistic character and mechanical designs, just boosted up the animation quality, lighting and detail in the background art. Since it has not yet been licensed it is currently available via the stream.
Below I have the original Japanese opening. As someone who wasn’t even alive in 1985 I can safely say this is the superior version -- sorry nostalgia junkies.
In the US you may be familiar with the Super Robot genre with Voltron (1984), made up of the heavily edited Japanese series Armored Fleet Dairugger XV and Beast King GoLion. More recently the super robot genre returned with critically acclaimed Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann (2007) which you are very likely to be able to find in your DVD stores today.
The real robot genre tries to approach the mecha genre from a more down-to-earth standpoint. What would the physics and rules be involved with machines like these? The robots are more likely to use ranged weapons rather than random superpowers and tend to be focused more on an overarching story than a ‘monster of the week’ format. Mobile Suit Gundam (1979) which will be mentioned below, is largely credited with starting this style of mecha anime, and one of the influences that GDT has mentioned. The other anime known to be major influence to this section of mecha anime is 36 episode Super Dimension Fortress Macross (1982), otherwise known as the Macross Saga of the popular Robotech series.
Compared to today’s standards the animation for Macross is cringe worthy and awful, but the soundtrack and characters stand up. The story would be nothing without the memorable characters to pull it along, as the series is mostly episodic. It does contain a lot in common with Voltron in the sense that it involves a bunch of aliens attacking the main characters. With the exception of interludes of character development via flashbacks and the like, the story does not show its true colours until about two thirds of the way through. Sadly, the series has been out of print for some time. The last printed DVDs, in Australia anyway, were an uncut 2002 release.
Here’s a re-animated version of the catchy-as-hell opening song that was released with the 2012 Blu Rays in Japan. If only the entire series could have been redone!
Pacific Rim ultimately has more involvement with the Real Robot subgenre then the Super Robot one as normal physics apply. The film is considered a science fiction action, rather than a fantastical action film. The Jeagers often get damaged or knocked out completely. With a stronger understanding of the origins of the mecha genre, we can now take a look at the anime that GDT has mentioned are inspirations to his work.
Mecha Anime that Inspired Pacific Rim
Patlabor is one of those shows which is so old we’re already past the “future” it’s set in. In some ways, the only way we are different from this universe is the use of the robots themselves. Clocking in at a total of 63 episodes, Patlabor takes place between 1998 and 2002. Robots called “Labors” are employed in heavy construction work. The Tokyo Metropolitan Police has its own fleet of Patrol Labors or “Patlabors” to combat crime and deal with accidents involving Labors.
The story arcs usually revolve around Tokyo Metropolitan Police Special Vehicle Section 2. Noa Izumi is the main protagonist of the series, but the series alternates between different characters – the adults and the young adults.
Sunrise produced a seven part OVA series (1993) that links onto the timeline of two of its movies. The manga also followed its own timeline. Even though the series debut was in 1989 critics at The Nihon Review and Anime News Network have praised it for its interesting, albeit slow story and strong characterization. The OVA’s and the second movie made it into Justin Sevakis’s “Top 10 Anime from the 90’s” List on Anime News Network’s podcast from 2012. Patlabor has a vast universe of stories to explore for those who are willing, and GTD is certainly not the only one whom keeps it close to his heart. A live action film adaption of the hit television series is due to hit Japan in 2015.
It seems that GDT did not lift much material from Patlabor. One important person in the vast world of mecha is the work of Yutaka Izubuchi. Besides being the creative designer of the Patlabors, he was responsible for the mechanical designs for the following projects: Aura Battle Dubine (1983), Assemble Insert (1989), Mobile Suit Gundam ZZ (1986). Armored Trooper Votoms: The Heretic Saint (1994), Gundam Build Fighters (2014). This list is by no means exhaustive, but it can give us a good idea of the variety of mecha designs -- so similar and yet so different!
While a lot of older television series seem to have incorporated a superhero trope with a cape and sword, the Patlabor designs in particular share some similar design qualities with the Jaegers from Pacific Rim. The only differences, at least with this model of Patlabor, is that the Jaegers do not have painted plates, are smoother and more rounded, and do not have those weird rectangular ‘ears’ pointing out of the head. If nothing else, the work of Izubuchi proves that even though it’s easy to point out similarities between mechanical designs, that none will completely match the other. The man is truly a great artist, as he has contributed other talents such as screenwriting, costume design and directing to other projects. He worked with other design elements of Evangelion 3.0, Eureka Seven as is credited as the main creator of Rahxephon.
Credited as one of the first, if not the first, mecha anime ever brought to television, Tetsujin-28 (Iron man #28) is a 1956 manga written and illustrated by Mitsuteru Yokoyama. The series takes place during the final days of World War II when Shotaro Kaneda, ten-year old boy detective, is given his late father’s creation: Tetsujin-28. The three-story high, remote-controlled robot was an obsolete, unused military tool that Shotaro used to stop criminals and enemy robots.
The original anime was a lighthearted adventure tale, but the 2004 reboot explored the horrors of World War II.
The author noted that his works were heavily influenced by his own experiences during World War II; notably, the bombing of Kobe. He wrote about it in Ushio magazine in 1995: “When I was a fifth-grader, the war ended and I returned home from Tottori Prefecture, where I had been evacuated. The city of Kobe had been totally flattened, reduced to ashes. People said it was because of the B-29 bombers… as a child, I was astonished by their terrifying, destructive power.” Although the B-29 bombers did destroy Kobe, Yokoyama was aware that it was the people piloting them that pulled the trigger. (Dragmeist)
The 2004 remake focuses on the power placed in the owner of Tetsujin-28’s control box. The robot lacks autonomy by virtue of being entirely autonomous in nature. In a post-war society, the devastating power of Tetsujin-28 is entrusted to a child genius and detective instead of a governing society.
Between Patlabor and Tetsujin-28 it is evident that technology is cast in a positive light. Unlike in Western films (Eagle eye, Terminator) that give technology a frightening amount of power, Tetsujin-28 and Patlabor stress that the person ultimately responsible for their actions is the one controlling the mecha. In Pacific Rim, the governing powers attempt to shut down the Jaeger program in favor of walls built around each major city, but Stacker Pentecost (Idris Elba) refutes these claims and sends his Jaeger pilots to fight one last time in an effort to save the world.
The mechas in Patlabor and Tetsujin-28 are what set in motion GDT’s creation of Pacific Rim. Had he never seen these films and recognized the importance and usefulness of technology as a tool, he would never have conceptualized Pacific Rim in the first place. Indeed the 2004 Tetsuin-28 is far more unsympathetic to society’s use of technology, it still has a special, naive quality in entrusting power to a child. GDT reflects this distinctly by entrusting the Earth’s salvation to a rookie pilot, and a pilot suffering from PTSD.
With a plot-line inspired by the capabilities of humanity, what about the mechas themselves? With the -- approximately -- fifty year history of the mecha genre, the weaponry systems used by the Jaegers could easily come from any anime, but Mobile Suit Gundam seems to be a major influence on the actual mechas seen in Pacific Rim.
Mobile Suit Gundam
While it is not the origin of the Mecha-Anime genre, Yoshiyuki Tomino’s anime Mobile Suit Gundam is a leading force in Mecha-Anime, with over twenty different anime based on the Gundam model, Mobile Suit Gundam is a clear influence on Pacific Rim.
In the year Universal Century 0079 the Earth Federation is at war with a group of space colonies known as the Duchy of Zeon. When a small Zeon force happens upon the Federation’s secret weapon, the young Amuro Ray gets caught up in the war and ends up piloting the secret weapon: the Gundam.
GDT’s use of giant robots and the mecha are meant to pay homage to technology and confront the westernized fear of technological take-over that has been evident in films like Terminator or Eagle Eye. These films stress the importance of humanity overcoming technology, while the mecha genre stresses the importance of using technology to benefit society.
There’s no hint of a warning in the mecha genre, and it’s joyful, almost mythologizing of mechanical characters. These magnificent giant robots work on a mythical level. (Lambie)
While traveling in Japan to promote Pacific Rim, GDT openly admitted that one of his Jaegers -- Cherno Alpha -- was based off of the Gundam, MS-O6 Zaku II, and upon closer inspection we can see that other Jaeger models are based off Gundams. For example, the Japanese Jaeger Coyote Tango is based off of the Rx-77-2 Guncannon.
The Jaegers are like Gundams in which their weaponry are secured in reality and are -- at least -- plausible. They were built to match the proportionate size of the Kaiju and with the intention of avoiding nuclear warfare. They generally rely on close-combat abilities and can utilize swords and blades to fight. They also wield heat-based weapons to damage and cauterize the Kaiju’s wounds in order to minimize the spread of the Kaiju’s toxic blood. Unlike the Super Robot genre, the Jaegers weapon designs are practical. They are designed to minimize damage to civilians and cities, and the pilots are trained to do the same. In the first episode of Mobile Suit Gundam alone, Amuro Ray recognizes that blowing up the enemy Gundam would destroy the colony, and he decides to aim for the cockpit. Lessening the damage to cities and civilian harm is reflected in how the Jaegers are deployed from their respective Shatterdomes into neighboring harbors or oceans.
By basing a lot of the Jaegers abilities in a down-to-earth reality as Gundam does, Pacific Rim manages to make a very “big” film feel very real. The Jaegers are not entirely overpowered, and piloting a Jaegers takes much more than “spunk.” GDT secures Pacific Rim in its own horrible reality that comes with war. When the audience learns that Raleigh Beckett was still connected to his brother in the drift when he died, we become very aware of how important each, and every action is. In a world of monsters, there are no superpowers, only the capabilities and character of the individuals really come into question. In the first few episodes of Mobile Suit Gundam, Amuro Ray has absolutely no idea what he is doing. He does not know how to pilot the RX-78 and only wins over the Zeon soldiers because the RX-78’s armor is stronger than they are used to. As the series progresses he must not only understand how to properly pilot the Gundam, but he must also understand the gravity of the power he wields. While facing off against Char “Red Comet” Aznable later in the series, he accidentally kills the girl he loves, Lalah Sune. The concept of loss is extremely prevalent in Pacific Rim and it gives each and every character a reason to fight.
Raleigh Beckett must fight in honor of his dead brother, but he must first overcome his fear of the drift. Mako Mori must fight because she lost everything she knew and loved when she was very little and, had it not been for Stacker Pentecost, she would have had nothing to live for. At the same time, Stacker Pentecost sacrifices himself for the girl he raised from the ashes of war.
We’ve been able to draw fair comparisons between Pacific Rim and a variety of mecha anime without claiming that GDT is plagiarizing. However, nothing is entirely original in today’s world. If one has a broad knowledge of anime they can easily make even more comparisons between the film and anime.
Other Similarities with Anime
There are a variety of anime that can be considered “inspirations” for Pacific Rim. For example, it is common in anime for male characters (sometimes female) to receive blood noses and/or faint when in shock or highly aroused. In Pacific Rim the blood nose issue appears although it is of a result of Penecosts medical issues.
Another small comparison one can draw between Pacific Rim and NGE is the mecha series, RahXephon (2002) by (Wolf’s Rain, Fullmetal Alchemist). Here, Ayato Kamina uses his mecha to fight an alien race known as the Mulians. These enemies are shrouded in mystery for the majority of the anime, although one identifiable feature they have is blue blood. It is probably completely coincidental that the Kaiju in Pacific Rim also have blue blood. The series is often criticized for being an “Evangelion rip off” due to the similar plot set up of Ayato having to protect his home city, and the basic roles each of the characters play. The story, characters or their relationships have little resemblance to Pacific Rim, however.
Despite the hundreds of mecha anime that have been produced in Japan, this article is not meant to downplay the efforts of the creative team. That being said, the comparisons have yet to end. There isn’t any anime compared to Pacific Rim as much as Neon Genesis Evangelion.
Neon Genesis Evangelion
Hideako Anno’s 1995 anime, Neon Genesis Evangelion (NGE) is about a young teenage boy named Shinji Ikari that is recruited by an organization named NERV to control a giant cyborg called an Evangelion [Eva] to fight monstrous beings called Angels. Evangelion takes place in a post-apocalyptic world that unites mankind against a common, alien enemy.
The common features between NGE and Pacific Rim are few and far between. The pilots protect their island from monsters, but this is something that is covered in a large number of mecha anime that both came before and after NGE so it is hardly something unique to that title. For example, Hideaki Anno also worked on the Gunbuster OVAs (1988) which involve a bunch of female mecha pilots that protect their planet from invading insectoid organisms. Kishin Corps (1993), Ariel (1989) and Voltes V (1977), amongst many others, also involved protection from an alien invasion. Very close to Pacific Rim, the television series Blocker Corps (1976) actually involved an army of people and monsters rising from the sea to attack Japan! Examples of titles that came after NGE that utilize this plot setup include Fafner (2004) and Rahxephon (2002). The rainbow synchronization computer and the idea of “synchronizing” with your pilot is only explored in episode 9 of NGE “Both of You, Dance Like You Want to Win” (Shunkan, kokoro, kasanete).
Fanatics have even gone so far as to note that Mako’s haircut was taken from Rei Ayanami from NGE. Besides the short length of her hair this seems coincidental. A stronger comparison in terms of appearance would be between Mako and Knives Chau from Scott Pilgrim Versus the World. If anything, at least Knives has the strip of blue hair.
The laid back nature of Rei’s character has also been quoted as similar, although this is more likely to reflect the politeness in Mako’s Japanese culture. Rei is still learning about the world as she was created by Gendo as a clone of his deceased wife. Her quietness is more out of introversion and her lack of a born temperament. Appearance and mannerisms out of the way, there is still one area where Rei has some link to Mako’s character.
The relationship dynamics between Mako and Stacker Pentecost is very similar to Rei Ayanami and Gendo in NGE. Gendo is the main founder and commander of NERV, and Pentecost seems to share a very similar role within his organization – as Marshall of the Pan Pacific Defense Corps. Pentecost was the first to test out and back up the Jaeger Project. Pentecost adopts Mako out of sympathy for her loss of her family, and acts as a guardian for her. Despite this there are distances between them as Pentecost does not initially allow her to become a pilot. These two links between franchises are still very different. Mako is not a clone. She respects Pentecost because she was adopted, rather than because she was created. Mako and Rei do eventually stand up to their guardians. For Rei it is not until the film, The End of Evangelion.
The last character comparison I will make against NGE is, surprisingly, one of the side characters. Newton Geiszler has a lot of personality traits in common with Kensuke Aida from NGE. Newton in Pacific Rim acts as a researcher for the Jaeger Program to determine the origins of the Kaiju and how to defeat them. Kensuke is Shinji Ikari’s friend. He is a military buff and an obsessed anime fan (otaku). He is also oblivious to the difficulties of Eva pilots. Despite their age differences, they both share similar physical features. Each character wears glasses, and like to wear a white shirt: Kensuke and Newton.
This would seem just like an interesting coincidence if it wasn’t for the shared personality traits. Both are extroverts, like to joke around, have obsessive levels of passion for their chosen area of interest and talk extremely quickly. They both put themselves in danger in order to learn more about their trade. One could see Geiszler as a grown up version of Kensuke. Again, this is merely a coincidence but an entertaining one.
Broad comparisons between Pacific Rim and anime like Evangelion is entirely harmful to the film and the filmmaker’s integrity. GDT was not looking to plagiarize from the mecha-anime genre. As it goes in today’s cinema, nothing is entirely original. Instead, an assortment ideas are taken and made into something new. GDT is quoted saying:
I’m not reflecting on any other summer movie so much as I am honoring two things that are crucial: the kaiju and the mecha. Japan, unlike any other country in the world, I think, does not have any ambivalence against technology.
Instead of taking to the streets with righteous cries of “plagiarism!” We should accept Pacific Rim as a standalone film that pays tribute to the mecha genre that we love. It still stands alone as a film with its approach to controlling the mechas, and the designs of the Jaegers and Kaijus. The characters each developed in such a way that we passionately root for them to win over the Kaijus and the action sequences are breathtaking enough for us to appreciate the film and come back wanting more.
Dragmeist. “Dragmeist Delves: Tetsujin 28 – The Father of Japanese Giant Robots.” Fantomzone. 17 Jul 2013: n. page. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. <http://fantomzone.org/dragmeist-delves-tetsujin-28-the-father-of-japanese-giant-robots/>.
Lambie, Ryan. “Guillermo del Toro interview: Pacific Rim, monsters and more.” Den of Geek. 12 Jul 2013: n. page. Web. 13 Apr. 2014. <http://www.denofgeek.us/movies/pacific-rim/151973/guillermo-del-toro-interview-pacific-rim-monsters-and-more>.
Schaefer, Sandy. “Guillermo del Toro: ‘Pacific Rim’ Is NOT Japanese Monster Movie Homage; No 3D.” Screen Rant. N.p., 15 Feb. 2014. Web. 11 Apr 2014. <http://screenrant.com/guillermo-del-toro-pacific-rim-japan-anime/>.
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